Copyright: infringement elements

Demonstrating copyright infringement requires that one show all three of the following:
  1. Ownership of a valid copyright
  2. Copying
  3. Of constituent elements that are protected

A valid copyright is (all three required):
  1. An original work
  2. Fixed
  3. In a tangible means of expression
An original work requires both:
  1. A modicum of creativity
  2. Independent creation
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