- Two-part test from International Shoe:
- 1. Sufficient minimum contact with state, also known as "purposeful availment
- For general jurisdiction (unrelated to case): must be a large number/strong contacts.
- For specific jurisdiction (related to case): contacts must be connected with the case/issue.
- 2. Fundamental fairness
- To defendant
- Plus the interest of state (but defendant can waive, so not as critical)
- Mullane says: no mathematical formula for notice, but must be reasonably calculated to achieve success in order to be effective. You must act like you really want to notify defendant.
- Sometimes 1st class mail is enough for this purpose.
Note that consent of defendant can waive all these requirements when litigation starts or ex ante (Carnival Cruse Lines, where the ticket/contract of sale applied).